- Allograft – A homograft between allogeneic individuals.
- Apheresis – Withdrawal of blood from a donor’s body, removal of one or more components (as plasma, blood platelets, or white blood cells) from the blood, and transfusion of the remaining blood back into the donor—called also pheresis.
- Arthroscopic – Examination of a joint with an arthroscope; also: joint surgery using an arthroscope.
- Articular cartilage – Cartilage that covers the articular surfaces of bones.
- Autologous – Derived from the same individual chondrocyte implantation.
- Avascular necrosis – Necrosis of bone tissue due to impaired or disrupted blood supply (as that caused by traumatic injury or disease) and marked by severe pain in the affected region and by weakened bone that may flatten and collapse—called also osteonecrosis.
- Calcified – To make calcareous by deposit of calcium salts.
- Catheter – A tubular medical device for insertion into canals, vessels, passageways, or body cavities for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes (as to permit injection or withdrawal of fluids or to keep a passage open).
- Chondral – Of or relating to cartilage.
- Chondrogenesis – The development of cartilage – to protrude through an abnormal body opening.
- Corticotomy – In bone surgery, a corticotomy is a cutting of the bone that may or may not split it into two pieces (bone fracture) but involves cortex only, leaving intact the medullary vessels and periosteum. Corticotomy is particularly important in distraction osteogenesis.
- Condyle – An articular prominence of a bone—used chiefly of such as occur in pairs resembling a pair of knuckles (as those of the occipital bone for articulation with the atlas, those at the distal end of the humerus and femur, and those of the lower jaw).
- Crepitation – A grating or crackling sound or sensation (as that produced by the fractured ends of a bone moving against each other or as that in tissues affected with gas gangrene).
- Cryopreservation – Preservation (as of sperm or eggs) by subjection to extremely low temperatures.
- Cryopreserved – Preservation (as of cells) by subjection to extremely low temperatures.
- Degenerative disc disease – Degeneration of one or more intervertebral disc of the spine, often called “degenerative disc disease” or “degenerative disc disorder”.
- Debridement – The usually surgical removal of lacerated, devitalized, or contaminated tissue.
- Dupuytren’s Contracture – A condition marked by fibrosis with shortening and thickening of the palmar aponeurosis resulting in flexion contracture of the fingers into the palm of the hand.
- Edema – An abnormal excess accumulation of serous fluid in connective tissue or in a serous cavity—called alsodropsy.
- Epicondylitis – Inflammation of an epicondyle or of adjacent tissues—compare.
- Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis (ECRB) – A short muscle on the radial side of the back of the forearm that extends and may abduct the hand.
- Facet – A smooth flat or nearly flat circumscribed anatomical surface.
- Femoral – Of or relating to the femur or thigh.
- Femoral vein – The chief vein of the thigh that is a continuation of the popliteal vein, accompanies the femoral artery in the upper part of its course, and continues above the inguinal ligament as the external iliac vein.
- Granulocyte – A polymorphonuclear white blood cell (as a basophil, eosinophil, or neutrophil) with granule-containing cytoplasm.
- Hematopoisis – The formation of blood or of blood cells in the living body.
- Hemarthrosis – Hemorrhage into a joint.
- Herniated – To protrude through an abnormal body opening.
- Hyaline cartilage – Translucent bluish white cartilage consisting of cells embedded in an apparently homogeneous matrix, present in joints and respiratory passages, and forming most of the fetal skeleton.
- Hydroxyapatite – A complex phosphate of calcium Ca5(PO4)3OH that occurs as a mineral and is the chief structural element of vertebrate bone.
- Hypertrophy – Excessive development of an organ or part.
- Immunohistochemical – Of or relating to the application of histochemical and immunologic methods to chemical analysis of living cells and tissues.
- Immunohistochemistry – Of or relating to the application of histochemical and immunologic methods to chemical analysis of living cells and tissue.
- Impingement syndrome – Pain and often weakness when you raise your arm, caused by a muscle tendon ‘catching’ in your shoulder.
- Intercondylar – Situated between two condyles.
- Lumen – The cavity of a tubular organ or part.
- Malunion – Incomplete or faulty union (as of the fragments of a fractured bone).
- Medial – Lying or extending in the middle; especially of a body part : lying or extending toward the median axis of the body.
- Microangiopathy – A disease of very fine blood vessels.
- Neuropathy – An abnormal and usually degenerative state of the nervous system or nerves; also : a systemic condition (as muscular atrophy) that stems from a neuropathy.
- Neurovascular – Of, relating to, or involving both nerves and blood vessels.
- Nonunion – Failure of the fragments of a broken bone to knit together.
- Osteoarthritis – Arthritis typically with onset during middle or old age that is characterized by degenerative and sometimes hypertrophic changes in the bone and cartilage of one or more joints and a progressive wearing down of apposing joint surfaces with consequent distortion of joint position and is marked symptomatically especially by pain, swelling, and stiffness.
- Osteochondritis dissecans – Partial or complete detachment of a fragment of bone and cartilage at a joint.
- Osteogenesis – Development and formation of bone.
- Osteophyte – A pathological bony outgrowth.
- Osteotomy – A surgical operation in which a bone is divided or a piece of bone is excised (as to correct a deformity).
- Patellar – A thick flat triangular movable bone that forms the anterior point of the knee, protects the front of the joint, increases the leverage of the quadriceps, and is usually regarded as a sesamoid bone since it is developed in the tendon of the quadriceps and in structure is similar to other sesamoid bones—called also kneecap, kneepan.
- Patellofemoral – Of or relating to the patella and femur.
- Pepsin – A protease of the stomach that breaks down most proteins to polypeptides.
- Percutaneously – Effected or performed through the skin.
- Progenitor – An ancestor of an individual in a direct line of descent along which some or all of the ancestral genes could theoretically have passed.
- Proteoglycans – Any of a class of glycoproteins of high molecular weight that are found in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue, are made up mostly of carbohydrate consisting of various polysaccharide side chains linked to a protein, and resemble polysaccharides rather than proteins in their properties.
- Revascularisation– A surgical procedure for the provision of a new, additional, or augmented blood supply to a body part or organ.
- Rheumatoid arthritis – A usually chronic disease that is considered an autoimmune disease and is characterized especially by pain, stiffness, inflammation, swelling, and sometimes destruction of joints —abbreviation RA.
- Rotator cuff – A supporting and strengthening structure of the shoulder joint that is made up of part of its capsule blended with tendons of the subscapularis, infraspinatus, supraspinatus, and teres minor muscles as they pass to the capsule or across it to insert on the humerus—called also musculotendinous cuff.
- Slipped discs – A protrusion of one of the cartilage disks between vertebrae with pressure on spinal nerves resulting in low back pain or sciatic pain.
- Subchondral – Situated beneath cartilage.
- Tendonitis – A painful condition in which a tendon in your arm, leg, etc., becomes inflamed.
- Tourniquet – A device (as a bandage twisted tight with a stick) to check bleeding or blood flow.
- Trochlea – An anatomical structure that is held to resemble a pulley;especially : the articular surface on the medial condyle of the humerus that articulates with the ulna.
- Varus – Of, relating to, or being a deformity in which an anatomical part is turned inward toward the midline of the body to an abnormal degree.